Manual The Gender Factory: The Apportionment of Work in American Households

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The median is the point at which half of the cases involved more days away from work and half involved less days away from work.

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Median wage An occupational median wage estimate is the boundary between the highest paid 50 percent and the lowest paid 50 percent of workers in that occupation. Half of the workers in a given occupation earn more than the median wage, and half the workers earn less than the median wage. Medical care coverage A type of insurance coverage that provides for the payment of benefits as a result of sickness or injury.

Medical care coverage can be provided in a hospital or a doctor's office. There are two main types of medical care plans. An indemnity plan—also called a fee-for-service plan—reimburses the patient or the provider as expenses are incurred. The most common type of indemnity plan is a preferred provider organization PPO. A PPO provides coverage to the enrollee through a network of selected health care providers such as hospitals and physicians.

Enrollees may go outside the network, but would incur higher costs in the form of higher deductibles and higher coinsurance rates than if they stayed within the network. The second type of medical care plan is called a prepaid plan—also called a health maintenance organization. A prepaid plan assumes both the financial risks associated with providing comprehensive medical services and the responsibility for health care delivery in a particular geographic area, usually in return for a fixed prepaid fee from its members.

Metropolitan Statistical Areas MSAs The general concept of an MSA is one of a large population nucleus, together with adjacent communities which have a high degree of economic and social integration with that nucleus. These are defined by the Office of Management and Budget as a standard for Federal agencies in the preparation and publication of statistics relating to metropolitan areas. More information Most significant source of postsecondary education or training Employment Projections An occupation is classified into 1 of 11 categories that best describes the postsecondary education or training needed by most workers to become fully qualified in the occupation.

The categories are as follows: first professional degree; doctoral degree; master's degree; bachelor's or higher degree, plus work experience; bachelor's degree; associate degree; postsecondary vocational award; work experience in a related occupation; long-term on-the-job training; moderate-term on-the-job training; and short-term on-the-job training. Multifactor productivity For the private business and private nonfarm business sectors, the growth rate of multifactor productivity is measured as the growth rate of output less the growth rate of combined inputs of labor and capital.

Labor is measured by a weighted average of the number of hours worked classified by education, work experience, and gender. Capital services measure the flow of services from the stocks of equipment and software, structures, land, and inventories. For the manufacturing sector, multifactor productivity is the growth rate of output less the combined inputs of labor, capital, and intermediate purchases.

Labor is measured by the number of hours worked. Intermediate purchases are composed of materials, fuels, electricity, and purchased services. Multiple jobholders Current Population Survey and American Time Use Survey Employed persons who, during the reference week, either had two or more jobs as a wage and salary worker, were self-employed and also held a wage and salary job, or worked as an unpaid family worker and also held a wage and salary job. Excluded are self-employed persons with multiple businesses and persons with multiple jobs as unpaid family workers. New entrants Current Population Survey Unemployed persons who never worked before and who are entering the labor force for the first time.

Nonfarm business sector Productivity and Costs The nonfarm business sector is a subset of the domestic economy and excludes the economic activities of the following: general government, private households, nonprofit organizations serving individuals, and farms. The nonfarm business sector accounted for about 77 percent of the value of gross domestic product GDP in Nonfinancial corporations Productivity and Costs The nonfinancial corporate business sector is a subset of the domestic economy and excludes the economic activities of the following: general government, private households, nonprofit organizations serving individuals, and those corporations classified as offices of bank holding companies, offices of other holding companies, or offices in the finance and insurance sector.

Nonfinancial corporations accounted for about 54 percent of the value of gross domestic product GDP in Nonlabor payments Productivity and Costs These payments include profits, consumption of fixed capital, taxes on production and imports less subsidies, net interest and miscellaneous payments, business current transfer payments, rental income of persons, and the current surplus of government enterprises.

More information Not employed American Time Use Survey The term refers to persons who are classified as unemployed as well as those classified as not in the labor force using Current Population Survey definitions. Not in the labor force Current Population Survey Includes persons aged 16 years and older in the civilian noninstitutional population who are neither employed nor unemployed in accordance with the definitions contained in this glossary.

Information is collected on their desire for and availability for work, job search activity in the prior year, and reasons for not currently searching. See Marginally attached workers. Not seasonally adjusted This term is used to describe data series that have not been subjected to the seasonal adjustment process. In other words, the effects of regular or seasonal patterns have not been removed from these series.

Doing Gender in the Family: Household Production Issues by James W. Gentry and Lee Phillip McGinnis

O Back to Top Occupation A set of activities or tasks that employees are paid to perform. Employees that perform essentially the same tasks are in the same occupation, whether or not they work in the same industry. Some occupations are concentrated in a few particular industries; other occupations are found in many industries. See Industry. Occupational groups A group of related occupations; examples: sales occupations and service occupations. Occupational illness Any abnormal condition or disorder, other than one resulting from an occupational injury, caused by exposure to factors associated with employment.

It includes acute and chronic illnesses or diseases which may be caused by inhalation, absorption, ingestion, or direct contact.

The gender factory : the apportionment of work in American households

Occupational injury Any injury such as a cut, fracture, sprain, amputation, etc. Occupational Injury and Illness Classification System Safety and Health Statistics Defines many of the data elements—such as nature, part, event, and source—that are used in the production of safety and health statistics by BLS. More information On-call employees Employees who are not permanent, but are called to work as needed, often on short notice, although they can be scheduled to work for several days or weeks in a row. Other separation Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey A separation of an employee from an establishment for miscellaneous reasons, including retirement, death, separation due to employee disability, or transfer to another location of the enterprise.

Other separations rate Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey The number of other separations during the month divided by the number of employees who worked during or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Part of body affected Safety and Health Statistics Directly linked to the nature of injury or illness cited, such as back, finger, or eye.

Pay period that includes the 12th of the month Standard measurement period for all Federal agencies collecting employment data from business establishments; time unit that employers use to pay employees that overlaps the 12th of the month; length of the pay period does not matter, as long as the 12th of the month is included in the pay period: For establishments with a Monday-through-Friday pay period, if the 12th of the month falls on a Saturday, it should be taken as the last day of the requested pay period, and if the 12th of the month falls on a Sunday, it should be taken as the first day of the requested pay period.

Payroll employment Current Employment Statistics Employment is the total number of persons on establishment payrolls employed full or part time who received pay for any part of the pay period which includes the 12th day of the month. Temporary and intermittent employees are included, as are any workers who are on paid sick leave, on paid holiday, or who work during only part of the specified pay period.

A striking worker who only works a small portion of the survey period, and is paid, would be included as employed under the CES definitions. Persons on the payroll of more than one establishment are counted in each establishment.

The Apportionment of Work in American Households

Data exclude proprietors, self-employed, unpaid family or volunteer workers, farm workers, and domestic workers. Persons on layoff the entire pay period, on leave without pay, on strike for the entire period or who have not yet reported for work are not counted as employed.

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Government employment covers only civilian workers. With the release of NAICS-based estimates in June , the scope and definition of Federal Government employment estimates changed due to a change in source data and estimation methods. The previous series was an end-of-month federal employee count produced by the Office of Personnel Management, and it excluded some workers, mostly employees who work in Department of Defense-owned establishments such as military base commissaries. Beginning in June , the CES national series began to include these workers.

Also, Federal Government employment is now estimated from a sample of Federal establishments, is benchmarked annually to counts from unemployment insurance tax records, and reflects employee counts as of the pay period including the 12th of the month, consistent with other CES industry series. The historical time series for Federal Government employment was revised to reflect these changes. Percentile wage estimate Shows what percentage of workers in an occupation earn less than a given wage and what percentage earn more. Permanent job losers Current Population Survey Unemployed persons whose employment ended involuntarily and who began looking for work.

Primary activity American Time Use Survey A primary activity is the main activity a respondent was doing at a specified time.

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Most published time use estimates reflect time spent in primary activities only. Price Index A price index is a tool that simplifies the measurement of price movements in a numerical series. Movements are measured with respect to the base period, when the index is set to Producer Price Index PPI A family of indexes that measure the average change over time in selling prices received by domestic producers of goods and services. PPIs measure price change from the perspective of the seller.

This contrasts with other measures that measure price change from the purchaser's perspective, such as the Consumer Price Index CPI. Sellers' and purchasers' prices may differ due to government subsidies, sales and excise taxes, and distribution costs. Productivity A measure of economic efficiency that shows how effectively economic inputs are converted into output. Productivity is measured by comparing the amount of goods and services produced with the inputs that were used in production.

Q Back to Top Quit Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey A separation of an employee from an establishment that is initiated by the employee; a voluntary separation; a resignation from a job or position. Quits rate Job Openings and Labor Turnover Survey The number of quits during the month divided by the number of employees who worked during or received pay for the pay period that includes the 12th of the month. Since , respondents are allowed to choose more than one race; previously, multiracial persons were required to select a single primary race.

Only data for whites, blacks, and Asians are currently published because the number of survey respondents for the other racial categories is not large enough to produce statistically reliable estimates. Reentrants Current Population Survey Unemployed persons who previously worked but were out of the labor force prior to beginning their job search.

Reference person Consumer Expenditure Survey The first member mentioned by the respondent when asked to "Start with the name of the person or one of the persons who owns or rents the home.

Relative importance Consumer Price Index BLS publishes what is called a "relative importance" for each commodity and commodity grouping. The relative importance of an item represents its basic value weight, including any imputations, multiplied by the relative of price change from the weight date to the date of the relative importance calculation, expressed as a percentage of the total value weight for the "all commodities" category. Represented by unions Current Population Survey Data refer to union members, as well as workers who reported no union affiliation but whose jobs are covered by a union or an employee association contract.

Respiratory condition due to toxic agents Safety and Health statistics Examples: Pneumonitis, pharyngitis, rhinitis or acute congestion due to chemicals, dusts, gases, or fumes; farmer's lung.

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Retirement plans National Compensation Survey Includes defined benefit pension plans and defined contribution retirement plans. S Back to Top Sample A subset of a universe; usually selected randomly and considered representative of the universe. Sample frame A listing of all units in the universe from which a sample can be drawn. Seasonally adjusted Seasonal adjustment removes the effects of events that follow a more or less regular pattern each year.

These adjustments make it easier to observe the cyclical and other nonseasonal movements in a data series.

Self-employed persons Current Population Survey and American Time Use Survey Those persons who work for profit or fees in their own business, profession, trade, or farm. Only the unincorporated self-employed are included in the self-employed category. Secondary or simultaneous activity American Time Use Survey A secondary or simultaneous activity is an activity done at the same time as a primary activity. With the exception of the care of children under age 13, information on secondary activities is not systematically collected in the American Time Use Survey.

Series report A form-based application that uses BLS time series identifiers as input in extracting data from each survey-specific database according to a specified set of date ranges and output options. Service-producing industries Standard Industrial Classification Includes transportation; communications; electric, gas, and sanitary services; wholesale trade; retail trade; finance, insurance, and real estate; and services.

Service-providing industries North American Industry Classification System Includes trade, transportation, and utilities; information; financial activities; professional and business services; education and health services; leisure and hospitality; other services. Short-term disability insurance Provides short-term typically 26 weeks income protection to employees who are unable to work due to a non-work-related accident or illness.

Shortage as in shortage of workers Shortages occur in a market economy when the demand for workers for a particular occupation is greater than the supply of workers who are qualified, available, and willing to do that job. Slowdown An effort, typically organized by a union, in which employees decrease productivity in order to bring pressure upon management.